Press Release: Woodhouse Preservation Group Awarded $1,500

PremierWest Bank Awards Skip Geear the Community Star Award, Veterans’ Edition and has donated $1,500 to the Wood House Preservation Group.

photo credit: Gary Wilkinson

Eagle Point, OR – The Woodhouse Preservation Group announced today that it was presented a $1,500 check from PremierWest Bank.  PremierWest Bank sponsored a Facebook Contest looking for a Veteran in their Community that deserved recognition for their work in the community, a Community Star!  The First Place Winner received $1,500 to their winner’s favorite charity.

Skip Geear was nominated by his daughter Becky Geear Chong, for his work with the Woodhouse Preservation Group, and today Geear was presented with the winning check in the amount of $1,500 for the Wood House Preservation Group.

photo credit: Gary Wilkinson

Geear said, “The Wood House has been through so much from 2001 through 2008.  We didn’t know what the future would hold for this treasured and historical landmark.  Even though it is probably the most photographed house in the Northwest, its destiny was still not certain until recently.  The chance that it desperately needed — to live on rather than fade into history — finally came with the birth of the Woodhouse Preservation Group.  In the past four years the Wood House has thrived thanks to the efforts of many dedicated people:  the volunteers with their unselfish donations of time, labor and a web site; the folks that donated money to keep the house open along with their artifacts to furnish the interior of the house; and Diana Gardener and Judson Parsons for making this endeavor possible with their purchase of the land that the Wood House sits on.  Also, big thanks to the community for their undying support of the Wood House via their interest and their votes for myself and the Wood House during the Community Star Award contest sponsored by PremierWest Bank.  And a very special thanks to my daughter Becky for nominating me as a contestant for the Community Star Award and for making this wonderful gift from PremierWest Bank possible.  Her support of me has always been relentless and devoted.

Since 100% of all money goes directly to the Wood House, the $1,500 check from PremierWest Bank will keep the Wood House open to greet the public for another year.  Due to the present economic situation, the money is definitely appreciated and it is a precious gift that is much needed for the continued future of the Wood House.

photo credit: Gary Wilkinson
L->R Sandra Erskine, PremierWest Bank, Skip Geear, Becky Geear Chong, Vera Jones (granddaughter of Walter Wood)

In closing, I would like to thank PremierWest Bank for making this all possible, and also a deep thanks to our dedicated volunteers and to the community for their support in the past and for their continued support in the future.  A special tip of the hat to PremierWest Bank for the $500 gift to each of the other four veterans that were finalists in the contest.  Each veteran is definitely deserving of the money that they received!”

Since the beginning in 1870, the Wood House has fought heavy rains, snow, the Columbus Day Storm, hail, fire, vandalism and county politics, and through all of this, the most photographed house in Southern Oregon still remains to welcome you to come and visit. See how western primitive living really was in the late 1800’s!

Woodhouse Preservation Group mission is to preserve, protect and cultivate local history at the Wood House through activities, tours, and educational events, thereby creating awareness and prolonging Rogue Valley history.

The Woodhouse Preservation Group is a registered non-profit 501 c3 charitable organization.

For additional information or to set up an appointment to tour the Wood House call: (541) 826-2177 or visit


The Wood House Ghost: Fact or Fiction?

Three-quarter front view of the Wood House. Note the ghost-like image in the large window just to the left of the front door of the house. Is it, by chance, a Wood family member that lived in the house years ago?

In the past we have heard many stories about the previous history of the Wood House.  Some of the stories were true but most were probably not.  And, one rumor abounds that the old Wood House is haunted!    Whatever the case, it is always interesting to hear new tales or to receive documented information regarding the past history of the Wood House.  One such interesting and documented story came to light recently…….

Being the most photographed house in thePacific Northwest, and as thousands have done in the past, a couple stopped at the Wood House to take several photographs of the historic structure.   Since the front gate was locked at the time and no one was at the Wood House, the people photographed the house from the front fence as many have done previously.   As the story goes, at some later date when the film was finally developed, the couple discovered that in the left front window of the house was an image that was not there when the photograph was originally taken…..and the image appeared to be that of a ghost!

Some say that this is a ghost of a woman (possibly Susan Griffeth Wood Hart) while others that view the photo believe it to be an image of the Grim Reaper.

Through some other visitors to the Wood House who relayed the story we were able to obtain a copy of the photo in question.  Sure enough, there is an image that is obvious in the front window of the house and it does appear to be a ghost image….. more specifically, an image of the Grim Reaper.   The window area on the photograph was enlarged and there is definitely a ghost-like reflection in the large glass window.  Is the ghost image really that of the Grim Reaper, or could it possibly be the ghost of Susan Griffeth Wood Hart (Walter Wood’s mother) that died in the house back in 1929?   Or, it might be the ghost of Walter Wood himself who was born in the house in 1881 and lived there for 93 years until he passed away in 1974.

Whatever the image is or might be, definitely adds to the mystic and the mystery of the historic Wood House!   What really is the image shown in the photo?  You be the judge!

The Old Wood House circa 1870

Marvin Sylvester Wood (born in New York on October 8, 1836), a wounded Civil War Veteran who was officially listed as deceased during the war, was discharged as a corporal from the United States Army in January of 1864, and he came to the Southern Oregon area in 1868 along with his susan hart in front of wood housebrother Dennis Wood. A homestead was established just north of Eagle Point, Oregon. Dennis Wood died in June of 1869 leaving Marvin to manage the existing homestead and a land patent was filed in May of 1870, at which time the existing house was constructed.

Marvin Wood married Susan Griffith in 1876, and they had three children: two daughters, Ora and Mayme, and one son, Walter Sylvester Wood. Marvin and Susan divorced in 1900. Susan later married John Hart in 1901, and Mr. Hart committed suicide in 1912. Marvin Sylvester Wood died in 1924, and Susan Griffith Wood Hart passed away in the Wood House in 1929. Walter Wood was born in the house in 1881, and he lived in the house his entire life until he passed away in September of 1974. Marvin Wood, Susan Wood-Hart, and Walter Wood are all buried in the old IOOF Cemetery in Central Point, Oregon.

Around 1898 the house was remodeled. A kitchen wing was added and also the second story of the housed was raised several feet higher. The famous “front gable” was also added at that time.

During its career, the Wood House has been in jeopardy several times. The first time was in 1946 when Highway 62 was widened. The house was in the way of the construction so the State of Oregon was going to demolish the structure. Walter Wood, son of Marvin Wood, fought to save the house, and he was instrumental in purchasing the Ashpole property (38 acres) across the street from the existing homestead and then the house was moved to its present location where it still stands today. The price for moving the house was $1,420. When moved, the house was turned around 180 degrees so that it would face Highway 62. In its old location the house faced Mt. McLoughlin.

photo courtesy of Loretta Wood Corbett

Prior to 1946, the house never had electricity or internal plumbing. After the move three lights were installed in the house and a sink with running water was installed in the kitchen. An outhouse was still used.

After Walter Wood passed away in September of 1974, the house was boarded up and abandoned. An investor from California purchased the house and the 38 acres it sat on in 1983. The house continued to waste away and it was taken over by brush and blackberry bushes. Over the years vandals removed all of the doors and windows except for one living room door and the door leading to the staircase. The house was set on fire several times over by vandals and each time the house refused to burn. Due to its deteriorated condition and the backdrop of Mt. McLoughlin, the Wood House became the most photographed and art painted house in the Pacific Northwest, and it still claims that title today. There are photographs and paintings of the house all over the United States and in foreign countries, including Australia, Canada, England and Japan.

photo courtesy of Skip Geear

In the year 2000 the existing land owner donated the structure to the Eagle Point Historical Society, but he retained the 38 acres. A one-acre lease to the Society was established at $200 per month so that the house could be kept on site. Using donated money and volunteers, during the summer of 2001 a minimal restoration was done to the house. Keeping the atmosphere of the house in mind that photographers and artists enjoy, only the work needed to keep the house structurally safe was performed. The old porch of the house was torn down and using what original wood could be salvaged, a new porch was constructed. The roof was reshingled with old weathered cedar shakes that were removed and donated from the Don Grissom house in Lake Creek, Oregon. Vintage windows and doors were added to fill the vacant openings throughout the house. Nothing was done to the inside of the structure, and visitors can view the unchanged interior to see exactly how things were back in the 1870’s.

Several years later the Wood House was in danger once again. The existing property owner put the land up for a speculative sale, so the future of the house was uncertain. Fundraisers were established to try to raise enough money to purchase the land, but the landowner continued to increase the price making any purchase of the land by the Eagle Point Historical Society impossible.

Wood House Roses. The rose bush in the foreground is original to the house. It was just a twig and was almost dead when we arrived there to refurbish the house. Today it thrives, just like the house!

In May of 2006, Judson Parsons and Diana Gardener (a Salem couple) purchased the property (which did not include the Wood House structure itself) from the existing landowner and the Wood House was saved once again. A new lease was established with the Eagle Point Historical Society and instead of one-acre, two-acres were now leased at $1 per year.

In 2008 a conveyance was done by the Eagle Point Historical Society to the City of Eagle Point, and the City of Eagle Point received the Eagle Point Museum, all of the existing assets (except for the Wood House) and the artifacts contained in the museum.  At the same time a second conveyance was performed by the Society to the newly formed Woodhouse Preservation Group (a non-profit organization) making the Woodhouse Preservation Group the proprietor of the Wood House Structure.   After both conveyances were completed, the Eagle Point Historical Society was officially dissolved and it no longer exists.     (As a side note, in 2017 another acre was included under lease to the Woodhouse Preservation Group lease agreement by Judson Parsons and Diana Gardener to be used for additional parking, making the total acreage as part of the lease agreement three acres…..still at $1 per year for all three acres.)

photo courtesy of Gary Wilkinson

All work and the events at the house are performed on a volunteer basis and since there is no payroll the Wood House is operated on a very small annual budget, supported strictly by donations. Various annual events are held at the Wood House each spring, fall and winter to bring tourists and local visitors to the house. The events include a Farm Festival Show in May, a Harvest Festival Show in October, a Halloween Open House at the end of October, and an Old Fashioned Christmas Open House in December. Free tours of the Wood House are given during each event and at other times of the year by appointment

Civil War at the Wood House. Loretta Wood-Corbett (Walter Wood’s granddaughter) is in center of photo. (Gary Wilkinson photo)

Since the beginning in 1870, the Wood House has fought heavy rains, snow, the Columbus Day Storm, hail, fire, vandalism and county politics, and through all of this the house still remains to welcome you to come and visit. See how western primitive living really was in the late 1800’s!

Woodhouse Preservation Group
161 Rockingham Circle, Eagle Point, Oregon 97524

For additional information or to set up an appointment to tour the Wood House call:
(541) 826-2177


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Marvin Sylvester Wood After the Civil War

After the close of the war, Marvin continued to live in Medina, Lenawee County, Michigan from 1864 to 1868, then apparently he and his brother Dennis migrated west by way of Cape Horn and settled Santa Clara County, California 1 for a short time, then continued on to Oregon.

In 1869, Marvin filed a homestead claim and built a small cabin on land just out of Eagle Point, Oregon.  That year, two tragedies occurred, Dennis died, and the cabin burned on Oct. 16, 1869.   With determination and perseverance, Marvin built a large house strong enough to last a lifetime.  The wood for the house was cut from trees above Prospect, Oregon

Susan (Griffith) (Wood) Hart, Photo courtesy of Loretta Wood-Corbett

Photo courtesy of Loretta Wood-Corbett

In early 1876, Marvin met Susan Carolina Griffeth, a local girl.  They married on May 21, 1876 by the JP in Eagle Point, Oregon at the home of the bride’s father, Charles Griffeth.  Marvin and Susan reared three children at the homestead, they were Ora, Mayme (Mamie), and Walter Wood.

The 1880 U.S. Census by Little Butte, Jackson, Oregon listed Marvin S. Woods age 43, Race W, Birthplace NY, Occupation as Farmer, and Father & Mother birthplaces as NY.  Married to Susan C., age 24, with children of Ora (age 3) and Maimey (age 1).  Included in the household was George Doney, Male, Race W, Age 26, Birthplace California, Occupation as Horse Breaker, Fathers birthplace Ohio, and Mothers birthplace Indiana.

After Susan and Marvin reared their three children at the homestead, Marvin separated from Susan in 1898 and he moved into Eagle Point.  Susan’s divorce from Marvin was apparently final in 1900.  In the 1900 U.S. Census, Marvin was listed as a widower, living in Eagle Point with his daughter, Ora Henderson, her husband Thomas and their daughter Veta, age 10 months.

Marvin, over the years, had suffered from his gun shot wounds he received in the Civil War.  He had applied and re-applied for pension increases, and he was examined and re-examined by doctors over the years to justify his pension increases. His left arm became so disabled that he could do very little manual labor, besides his left jaw and face being badly disfigured from his wounds. . 2

Sometime after 1913, Marvin married again, to a widow by the name of Rachel (Gilpin) Wolary.  She had been previously married to Nathaniel Wolary, also a Civil War veteran, who died Jan. 29, 1913 in Eagle Point.  According to the 1920 Census, Rachel was listed as the spouse to Marvin.

Rachel Wood died Feb. 2, 1924 at the home of Dick Johnson, in Eagle Point, OR.  She is buried at the Central Point Cemetery.  Marvin died nearly a month and a half after Rachel, on March 16, 1924 at 3:30 a.m.  Marvin had suffered his last years from senility, and eventually died from Prostatitis and Cystitis during his last month of life.  He died in his son’s home, the one he had built several years before. According to his death certificate, Marvin’s mother was Elizabeth Cawson (Clawson), and father was Sylvester Wood.  Marvin is buried at the Central Point Cemetery.

Obituary for Marvin S. Wood:

“Marvin Sylvester Wood 87 resident of Eagle Point for 55 years, Veteran of Civil War and was wounded, died Sunday (Mar. 16, 1924) at is son’s home.  Mr. Wood was born in Erie Co. New York on 10-8-1836 and came west in 1868.  Married Miss Susan Griffith 1876.  Survivors are Ora, Mayme Hawes and Walter Wood.  He was a Methodist and member of the G. A. R.” (Grand Army of the Republic). 3

  1. Source: Marvin S. Wood Pension Records.
  2. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Pensions document dated 12/2/1899, signed by Marvin S. Wood.
  3. Source: Medford Mail Tribune Obituary). 

History of Marvin S. Wood In the Michigan 11th Infantry Of the Civil War

Sometime prior to 1861, Marvin Wood had migrated to Lenawee County, Michigan where he took up farming. After the beginning of the Civil War, Marvin, at about the age of 23, decided to volunteer for military service, and signed up in the Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He was enlisted as a Private on December 6, 1861 in White Pigeon, St. Joseph County, Michigan and was assigned to Company “F” commanded by Capt. John Birdsill, in the 11th Regiment of Michigan Infantry Volunteers, commanded by Colonel William L. Stoughton.

The 11th Regiment, with its total enrollment of 1,323 men, left its White Pigeon rendezvous Dec. 9, 1861. They shipped out by rail from Sturgis, Michigan for Bardstown, Kentucky and remained there for basic training duty until March 1862.

During the spring of 1862 the Eleventh was occupied in guarding the Nashville & Louisville railroad while attached to the Department of Ohio1, then in July made a series of long marches in pursuit of the Confederate Gen. John Hunt Morgan and his 1,000-man cavalry, also known as Morgan’s Raiders. The Eleventh was part of the force that defeated Morgan at Gallatin, TN on the 13th of August.

Upon the regiment’s return to Nashville, it was assigned to provost duty. It was attached to the 29th Brigade, 8th Division, Army of the Ohio2 until November 1862, rendering valuable assistance in fortifying that city so it was impregnable to the attack of the opposing forces.

In November 1862, the Eleventh under the command of Colonel William L. Stoughton was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Division, 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland commanded by General William S. Roscrans. Col. Negley commanded the 2nd Division, and Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas commanded the 14th Army Corps. During this time, Marvin was promoted to Corporal.

The Eleventh participated in the advance (Dec. 26-30, 1862) upon Murfreesboro, Tenn. and was in the fiercest fighting at Stone River from December 31, 1862 to January 2, 1863. Col. Negley’s Second Division was in the center of the Union line, which was stoutly assailed by the Confederates in such overwhelming numbers as to force it back toward Murfreesboro Pike. The Eleventh fought gallantly with the many casualties of the Regiment attesting to the severity of the contest. The Eleventh was one of the first Regiments to cross Stone River, and was among the troops that captured a Confederate battery, which had been abandoned when the Confederates were driven from the field.
During January 1863, the Eleventh was detached from its Division and placed on provost duty at Murfreesboro, remaining there until June, when the advance was commenced upon Tullahoma, Tenn.

The advance from Murfreesboro to Tullahoma (Middle Tennessee) started on June 23, 1863 by the Union forces, with many skirmishes along the way until reaching near Tullahoma on June 29th. Col. Stoughton commanded the 2nd Brigade with the Michigan Eleventh Regiment. During the advance, the brigade was acting as guard for the ammunition and division train. They had passed through Hoover’s Gap and into Beech Grove, TN. During this advancement, they encountered utterly impassable roads, heavy rains and mud. At one point on the morning of the 29th, the transportation had to be sent back, escorted by a detachment of the 69th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and the artillery, supported by five companies of the Eleventh Michigan Volunteer Infantry. Heavy skirmishing was encountered with the enemy near Tullahoma and Elk River on July 1st. After the Confederate forces retreated from Tullahoma on the night of June 30th, the Union forces took over occupation on July 1st, 1863. The divisions of Brannan, Negley, and Sheridan pushed on and overtook the rear guard of the enemy late in the afternoon of July 1st, where they encountered sharp skirmishes with the rebels.

By July 3rd, General Rosecrans forces had successfully pursued the enemy across the mountains. According to General Rosecrans’ report on July 3rd, “Thus ended a nine days’ campaign, which drove the enemy from two fortified positions and gave us possession of Middle Tennessee, conducted in one of the most extraordinary rains ever known to Tennessee at that period of the year, over a soil that becomes almost a quicksand… These results were far more successful than was anticipated, and could only have been obtained by a surprise as to the direction and force of our movement.”

In the latter part of August (1863) the movements to secure Chattanooga, Tenn. began. General Crittenden’s 21st Corps left his camp at Manchester and Hillsboro, and crossing the Cumberland Mountains, occupied the Sequatchee Valley where he built extensive campfires and sought to convey the impression that General Rosecrans’ whole army was moving in that direction. He then crossed Walden’s Ridge and Wilder’s Brigade appeared in the valley above Chattanooga, where they began building boats as though to cross the river at that point. The Confederate Commander made arrangements to meet the expected attacks, and there is convincing evidence that the Commander of the Union forces had succeeded in deluding him into the belief that the Union Army would cross the river above Chattanooga. In the meantime General McCook’s 20th Corps and General Thomas’ 14th Corps, of which the Michigan Eleventh was part of, kept undercover as much as possible while they moved in the direction of Bridgeport and Caperton’s Ferry on the Tennessee River below Chattanooga. A pontoon and trestle bridge was thrown across the Tennessee River at Bridgeport where a part of General Thomas’ corps crossed. The boats for the pontoon bridge at Caperton’s Ferry were brought with the train and were kept concealed while a road was cut for their transportation through the woods. About the 29th of August these fifty boats, each capable of carrying fifty men were brought out of the woods, carried rapidly across an open field, quickly launched and, being filled with men, were towed to the opposite side of the river. The Confederates pickets were driven away, the bridge rapidly constructed and General McCook’s corps passed over it to the south side of the Tennessee River. As soon as these two corps had crossed the river, General Crittenden’s 21st Corps marched rapidly down the Sequatchee Valley to join them taking position on the left, and marching around the point of Lookout Mountain, he occupied Chattanooga.

By the 4th of September General Rosecrans’ entire army was south of the Tennessee River. On the 7th of September General Thomas began the ascent of Lookout Mountain, twenty-six miles south of Chattanooga, and on the same day General McCook started across Lookout Mountain about forty miles south of Chattanooga. By the 8th, General Thomas’ 14th Corps was descending from Steven’s and Fricks Gap and General McCook’s 20th Corps was going down the mountain toward Alpine, while General Crittenden had pushed part of his command along the mountain trails until they were in sight of Chattanooga and discovered that General Bragg’s Confederate Army had retreated from the town.

During this advance of General Rosecrans’ Army to Chattanooga, the Eleventh Michigan Regiment had left its camp at Dechard, Tenn., making the toilsome march over the mountains and reaching the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia in time to participate in two days of the fiercest fighting of the war. The Eleventh regiment was under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Mudge during the battle, as Colonel Stoughton was then given command of the Second Brigade.

Colonel Stoughton, after the battle of Chickamauga, withdrew his Brigade to Rossville by command of General Thomas, holding that position until the Union army had passed to Chattanooga, then on the morning of the 22nd returned to Chattanooga, being one of the last of the Union Troops to leave the field.

The Battle of Chickamauga was considered the second of the top ten costliest battles of the Civil War, with the casualties numbering 16,170 for the Union forces and 18,454 for the Confederate forces. (Source: Various civil war documents and field commander reports)

During the battle of Chickamauga, Marvin Wood was wounded on Sunday the 20th of September 1863. He had suffered gunshot wounds of the jaw and left shoulder. There have been stories that Marvin lay critically wounded for three days and nights before being discovered. According to his military records, that may have been true, since he was listed on two Casualty Sheets dated September 26, 1863 as deceased. His Company Muster Roll sheet for the two months of September & October 1863 listed Marvin as absent and in a field hospital at Chattanooga, Tenn. He apparently remained in the hospital through December of 1863. In January of 1864, Marvin was transferred to Louisville, Kentucky where he was processed for discharge from the Army. On January 19, 1864, Marvin was given his Certificate of Disability for Discharge. His certificate described him as 23 years old, 5-ft, 9-1/2 inches tall, light complexion, blue eyes, and black hair. His discharge indicated he was incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of gun shot fracture of the inferior maxillary (lower jaw) bone and dislocation (permanent) of left humerus (upper left arm bone and shoulder). With these injuries, Marvin was classified as “not fit for the Invalid Corps3 with three quarters disability”.

After his discharge, Marvin apparently returned to Michigan, since his discharge certificate indicated, “This Soldier desires to be addressed at Medina, Lenawee County, Michigan.”
(Source: Civil War Military Records for Marvin S. Wood, from the National Archives)

image credit Gary Wilkinson, click to view larger image

  1. The Department of the Ohio having been merged in that of Mississippi, March, 1862, it was recreated on August 19th, 1862 to consist of the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Kentucky, east of the Tennessee River, and Major-General H. G. Wright was placed at the head. The troops of the department were scattered through many districts. Some of the brigades constituted the Army of Kentucky, of which Major-General Gordon Granger was in command. Major-General A. E. Burnside replaced Wright March 25, 1863, and shortly afterward the troops in the department were reorganized into the Twenty-third Army Corps, and this force is the Army of the Ohio associated with the Knoxville, Atlanta, and Nashville campaigns. The Ninth Corps was attached to the department from March 1863 to March 1864. Burnside was succeeded in turn by Major-Generals J. G. Foster, J. M. Schofield, and George Stoneman. A cavalry division organized in April 1864 was headed by Major-General Stoneman, and afterward by Colonels Capron and Garrard. On January 17, 1865, the troops still in the department (the Twenty-third Corps having gone to North Carolina) were annexed to the Department of the Cumberland. (Source: “Photographic History of the Civil War”)

  2. The Department of Kentucky, which constituted the whole of that State within a hundred miles of the Ohio River, was merged in the Department of the Cumberland, comprising the States of Kentucky and Tennessee, August 15, 1861. On November 9th, it was renamed the Department of the Ohio, the States of Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana being added. The troops in this region (over whom McClellan, Rosecrans, O. M. Mitchel, Robert Anderson, and W. T. Sherman had, at different times and places, control) were now organized into the Army of the Ohio, with Major-General Don Carlos Buell in command. Although the department was merged into that of Mississippi in March 1862, the Army of the Ohio retained its name. This was the body that brought such timely assistance to Grant at Shiloh and drove Bragg out of Kentucky. The army was organized into three corps in September 1862, but the following month (October 24th) the Department of the Cumberland was recreated to consist of eastern Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia, and the Army of the Ohio, which had operated chiefly in that region, now became officially the Fourteenth Army Corps, but better known as the Army of the Cumberland. On October 30th, 1862 Buell was replaced by Major-General W. S. Rosecrans, and the Fourteenth Corps was reorganized into the Right Wing, Center, and Left Wing, later the Fourteenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-first Army corps. The last two were afterward consolidated as the Fourth Corps. With this army, Rosecrans fought the battle of Stone’s River, drove Bragg across the Tennessee, and was defeated at Chickamauga. Major-General George H. Thomas succeeded to the command October 20, 1863. The army distinguished itself on Missionary Ridge and through the Atlanta campaign (as a part of the Military Division of the Mississippi), and in the campaign against Hood in Tennessee. The army had four divisions of cavalry. It had a reserve corps for a short time, and received two corps from the Army of the Potomac, which was finally consolidated into the reorganized Twentieth Corps. (Source: “Photographic History of the Civil War”)

  3. A great number of Civil War soldiers were disabled by weapons, disease, and accidents. Initially, the permanently disabled received medical discharges from the army, but later they remained in the service and performed non-combat duties, relieving other soldiers to fight. In 1862 the Union army allowed chief medical officers to employ “convalescent wounded and feeble men” as nurses, cooks, and hospital attendants and subsequently to organize them into detachments. Unfortunately, these methods were inefficient, and many convalescents did not return to their combat units when well. Therefore, in Apr. 1863 the U.S. War Department created an Invalid Corps of worthy disabled officers and men who were or had been in the army. Ridicule influenced the corps to exchange its sky blue uniform for one similar to those worn by the other soldiers. The corps formed 2 “battalions,” the first for those who could bear arms and perform garrison duty and the second for the severely handicapped fit only for hospital service. Late in the war the surgeon general took command of the second battalion. Like the combat units, the Invalid Corps organized officers and men into companies and regiments. Renamed the “Veteran Reserve Corps” 18 Mar.1864, it was abolished during summer 1866. Between 1863 and 1866 more than 60,000 individuals served in the organization and performed valuable services, including garrisoning fortifications and quelling an 1863 “Draft Riot” in New York City. The Confederacy established an Invalid Corps in 1864, in which officers and men disabled in the line of duty had to serve if they wished to receive pay. Also, if their physical condition improved sufficiently, they had to return to their combat unit. Unlike its Union counterpart, the Confederate Invalid Corps never organized companies and regiments, but a high percentage of its officers and men did perform worthwhile duties based on their disabilities and army requirements. (Source: Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War)